- In 2020, the centre introduced new research themes to reflect a shift in the centre’s research focus
- One of the new theme leaders are 局域网Wang-Erlandsson who will co-lead the new 世动力学 theme
- 她的研究重点是土地之间的大规模相互作用, 水, 和气候, 以及它们对恢复力的伟德官方网址
Centre researcher 局域网Wang-Erlandsson explains her fascinating research and the centre’s increased focus on the dynamics of the Anthropocene
我们已经进入人类世这是一个人类塑造生物圈方方面面的新时代. 这意味着人类在塑造功能方面可以与自然力量相抗衡, 流程, 和地球系统动力学.
贸易, 金融化, 人类迁移, 城市化, technological development and communication are increasingly connecting people and life-support systems in ever more distant geographic locations.
但这对我们的研究意味着什么呢? We talk to 局域网Wang-Erlandsson, a leader of the centre’s new research theme on 世动力学. In this interview we discuss her exciting work tracking vapour flows through the atmosphere to understand far flung impacts of deforestation and other human-induced land use change, 以及她对这一重要研究方向的计划.
With the conditions we are working under we might not always be able to line up super strong evidence. This uncertainty is extremely difficult and needs to be handled and communicated carefully by scientists and decision makers.
When you think about the world’s 水 you probably think about 水 in lakes, 大海或海洋. 绿色的水是你在土壤里看不到的水, 在大气中的蒸发作用, 以降水的形式落回地面. It’s often seen as something humans don’t directly influence, but we do.
Rainfall is not always the result of 水 evaporating from the ocean. 它也可以来源于陆地上的水分蒸发. This means that human-induced changes in land use have the power to alter vapour flows to the atmosphere, which in turn influence the rainfall patterns 和气候s we depend on.
It’s become clear in the recent decades that what happens in a rainforest like the Amazon does not just affect the countries that host the forest. 在他们的数十亿, rainforest trees suck 水 out of the ground through their roots and release 水 vapor into the atmosphere through pores in their leaves, travelling to and benefitting places hundreds or even thousands of miles away.
I try to understand how deforestation and other land use change affect these downwind areas. 例如, in one of my projects I use publicly available data to model the path of the atmospheric 水. Where does the rainfall on which the Amazon and Congo rainforests depend come from? 它们所产生的水蒸气会传播到哪里?
我不仅仅关注雨林. I’m also looking at what happens when we irrigate agricultural land on a large scale. 这是否改变了从陆地到大气的水量? 在干旱地区，雨水往往来自陆地而不是海洋. This means our activities on land are even more important in these areas.
更普遍地说，我正在努力更新水行星的边界. The original planetary boundary framework explicitly included only fresh水 - visible “blue” 水. 但绿水也同样重要!
如果你回头看, sustainability science has tended to focus on developing specific measures to tackle a problem in a specific place. 但是人类世的问题是全球性的. 现在很明显，像水(和许多其他问题)这样的问题!) are both transboundary problems and influence the entire Earth system and its sustainability.
The impacts of human activities now extend not only in the spatial dimension, 但同时也会对未来的世代产生巨大的伟德官方网址. More certainty around these global 世动力学 gives a basis for understanding how to govern these global commons in a way that matches our global responsibility and takes into account the generational effects.
这很好地引出了下一个问题. 作为中心新人类世动力学主题的领导者之一. 你最兴奋的是什么?
我主要研究土地和水的相互作用, 主要基于地球科学的生物物理部分. Having the platform to deeply engage with other disciplines and explore how our disciplinary understandings fit together will help us begin to unravel these dynamics and come up with relevant solutions. What seems difficult and messy today may gain some much needed clarity.
以北半球的干旱为例. Only looking at the Earth system science perspective you will see synchronised drought across say, 俄罗斯, 西欧和北美. But when combined with trade data and for example behavioural experiments from the social sciences you might discover that it’s not only the food systems in the Northern Hemisphere that will be impacted.
我们也在关注刚刚出现的新风险. 我们看到了各种各样的新技术, 但尚不清楚它们将如何与地球系统动力学结合起来, 人类行为和所有其他类型的人类世动力学.
What are the major challenges you see for understanding 世动力学?
Good data only goes back a few decades, and beyond that it is really poor. 我们也没有许多地球系统那样的奢侈. 许多科学都可以做实验, 但我们的理解必须建立在我们眼前所见的基础上, 随着我们的研究，这个系统正在迅速变化, which makes it difficult to see what is a human effect and what is an underlying Earth system dynamics.
This is complicated by that fact that when you make extraordinary claims you need extraordinary evidence. With the conditions we are working under we might not always be able to line up super strong evidence. This uncertainty is extremely difficult and needs to be handled and communicated carefully by scientists and decision makers.
在事物的另一边, 这项工作非常及时, so I feel privileged to be doing something important that also interests me, 尽管有这些挑战.